Field-evolved resistance in corn earworm to Cry proteins expressed by transgenic sweet corn. However, it is not \"bullet proof\" when planted late there can be considerable earworm damage to Bt sweet corn. 2016). All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Plots planted to Dekalb DKC6697 (VT Double Pro) or Pioneer P1319VYHR (Optimum Leptra) had fewer large larvae compared to plots planted to either of the non-Bt hybrids (Dekalb DKC 6694 or Pioneer P1319R). Number of damaged ears was converted to percent damaged ears. Decreased susceptibility of corn earworm to Cry toxins in Bt sweet corn was confirmed a couple of years ago and these are the same Cry toxins expressed in field corn. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115:3320-3325. Because BT residues break down quickly and because earworm larvae do little or no feeding before entering an ear of corn, BT sprays have not been effective for corn earworm control in sweet corn or seed corn. CEW is also known as the tomato fruitworm and the cotton bollworm, and it is a pest on corn, tomato, cotton, beans, alfalfa, and tobacco.1,2, Bt hybrids of sweet corn contain one or more genes from the naturally occurring soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that result in the production of proteins that disrupt the digestive systems of certain groups of insects.3 Different strains of the bacterium produce different insecticidal proteins, and the genes that code for these proteins have been used to develop insect-resistant crops, including corn and cotton.4, Sweet corn hybrids with Bt traits first became commercially available in the late 1990s to help manage insect pests such as corn earworm and European corn borer. 7 Venugopal, P. and Dively, G. 2017 Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm. Corn earworm is found throughout North America except for northern Canada and Alaska. The pheromone lures should be changed every two to three weeks. written by: Darsy Smith & Veronica Yurchak Dr. Galen Dively, a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Entomology at the University of Maryland, has become a leading figure in the effort to monitor and mitigate resistance development to genetically modified Bt corn, primarily addressing the very destructive corn earworm. Farmers use Bt corn as an alternative to insecticide application. Corn earworm (Photo 1) is common in Iowa corn. Traps should be placed outside of the planting on the upwind side of the field based on prevailing winds. nubilalis (Hübner), but not corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Since eggs are small and difficult to detect1 , pheromone traps should be used to monitor CEW populations once sweet corn starts to tassel (Figure 2). Damage was described as feeding on fertilized and developed kernels. 3 Pesticide Information Profile: Bacillus thuringiensis. All data were subjected to ANOVA and means separated according to Fisher’s Protected Least Significant Difference. This research was supported in part by industry gifts of pesticides, seed, and/or research funding. Plots planted to Dekalb DKC6697 (VT Double Pro), Pioneer P1319YHR (Optimum Intrasect), or Pioneer P1319VYHR (Optimum Leptra) had fewer medium corn earworm per ear than plots planted to Pioneer P1319HR (Herculex). First and second generation caterpillars attack the whorl stage while the later generations are largely found in corn ears. Bt corn should not be used as a stand-alone tactic to manage corn earworm nor is it marketed that way by seed companies. Thousands of acres are lost each year to the larvae of this moth and many home gardeners have been discouraged by … A study on the effectiveness of using Bt sweet corn for managing CEW was conducted between 1996 and 2016 in Maryland.4 The non-Bt hybrids showed average ear damage levels of 82.4%, and that level was constant over the 20 years of the study.
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